Tourists’ Preferences for Alpine Pastures Maintenance




landscape management, pastures resilience, mountain, contingent valuation method, multiple correspondence analysis, cluster analysis


Traditional extensive agriculture is the main factor of landscape management in the mountains: a large part of the Alps is modelled by agriculture. Interpreted as a multifunctional activity, including landscape modelling and maintenance, agriculture generates the conditions under which mountain pasture landscape is an economic resource potentially exploitable by tourism. The aim of this work is to draw the profiles of tourists of mountain pastures and to estimate their Willingness to Pay (WTP)for landscape pastures resilience. The innovation of this work lies in the use of a multivariate approach using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). The analysis obtained three clusters that identify different tourists’ profiles. The main result is the existence of a positive WTP for the permanence of pasture systems with an agricultural management. Policy guidelines have been proposed to institutions owning pastures and huts to manage these assets.


Abdi, H., & Valentin, D. (2007). Multiple correspondence analysis. Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics, , 651-657.

Baronchelli, C. (2016). L'Alpeggio Come Elemento Strategico Del Territorio Montano?.Un'Indagine Attraverso Choice Model Approach Nel Comprensorio Delle Orobie Bergamasche,

Bateman, I. J., Harwood, A. R., Mace, G. M., Watson, R. T., Abson, D. J., Andrews, B., . . . Termansen, M. (2013). Bringing ecosystem services into economic decision-making: Land use in the united kingdom. Science, 341(6141), 45-50. doi:10.1126/science.1234379

Bel, F., Lacroix, A., Lyser, S., Rambonilaza, T., & Turpin, N. (2015). Domestic demand for tourism in rural areas: Insights from summer stays in three french regions. MPRA, , 66255.

Bernués, A., Rodríguez-Ortega, T., Alfnes, F., Clemetsen, M., & Eik, L. O. (2015). Quantifying the multifunctionality of fjord and mountain agriculture by means of sociocultural and economic valuation of ecosystem services. Land use Policy, 48, 170-178. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.05.022

Bramwell, B. (1994). Rural tourism and sustainable rural tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2(1-2), 1-6. doi:10.1080/09669589409510679

Castellani, V., & Sala, S. (2009). Sustainable Tourism as a Factor of Local Development,

Chin, C. -., & Lo, M. -. (2017). Rural tourism quality of services: Fundamental contributive factors from tourists’ perceptions. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(4), 465-479. doi:10.1080/10941665.2016.1276465

Chrysochou, P., Gidarakou, I., Kokkali, P., & Koutsouris, A. (2006). Rural Tourism and Local Development: The Case of the Northern Mt Pelion, Greece,

Costa, P. S., Santos, N. C., Cunha, P., Cotter, J., & Sousa, N. (2013). The use of multiple correspondence analysis to explore associations between categories of qualitative variables in healthy ageing. Journal of Aging Research, 2013 doi:10.1155/2013/302163

Devesa, M., Laguna, M., & Palacios, A. (2010). The role of motivation in visitor satisfaction: Empirical evidence in rural tourism. Tourism Management, 31(4), 547-552. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2009.06.006

Di Franco, G. (2006). Corrispondenze Multiple e Altre Tecniche Multivariate Per Variabili Categoriali,

Frochot, I. (2005). A benefit segmentation of tourists in rural areas: A scottish perspective. Tourism Management, 26(3), 335-346. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2003.11.016

Garrod, B., Wornell, R., & Youell, R. (2006). Re-conceptualising rural resources as countryside capital: The case of rural tourism. Journal of Rural Studies, 22(1), 117-128. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.001

Gios, G., Goio, I., Notaro, S., & Raffaelli, R. (2006). The value of natural resources for tourism: A case study of the italian alps. International Journal of Tourism Research, 8(2), 77-85.

Goio, I., & Gios, G. (2012). Landscape-recreational value: A resource for local development-first results from a survey in a small mountain valley (sinello valley, vallarsa, northern italy). Landscape Research, 37(3), 351-364. doi:10.1080/01426397.2011.588789

Greenacre, M., & Hastie, T. (1987). The geometric interpretation of correspondence analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 82(398), 437-447. doi:10.1080/01621459.1987.10478446

Hjalager, A. -., Kwiatkowski, G., & Østervig Larsen, M. (2018). Innovation gaps in scandinavian rural tourism. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(1), 1-17. doi:10.1080/15022250.2017.1287002

Husson, F., Josse, J., & Pagès, J. (2010). Principal component methods-hierarchical clustering-partitional clustering: Why would we need to choose for visualizing data? Journal of Aging Research, 12, 1-12.

Jindrová, A., & Dömeová, L. (2013). Rural tourism services utilization in the czech republic. Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica, 2013(4), 256-263. doi:10.7160/sab.2013.440410

Johnson, R. A., & Wichern, D. W. (2007). Applied Multivariate Correspondence Analysis,

Keske, C. M. H., & Mayer, A. (2014). Visitor willingness to pay U.S. forest service recreation fees in new west rural mountain economies. Economic Development Quarterly, 28(1), 87-100. doi:10.1177/0891242413506744

Lamarque, P., & Lambin, E. F. (2015). The effectiveness of marked-based instruments to foster the conservation of extensive land use: The case of geographical indications in the french alps. Land use Policy, 42, 706-717. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2014.10.009

Lane, B. (1994). What is rural tourism? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2(1-2), 7-21. doi:10.1080/09669589409510680

Lee, C. -., Lee, J. -., Kim, T. -., & Mjelde, J. W. (2010). Preferences and willingness to pay for bird-watching tour and interpretive services using a choice experiment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(5), 695-708. doi:10.1080/09669581003602333

Lima, J., Eusébio, C., & Kastenholz, E. (2012). Expenditure-based segmentation of a mountain destination tourist market. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 29(7), 695-713. doi:10.1080/10548408.2012.720155

Lopez Feldman, A. (2012). Introduction to Contingent Valuation using Stata,

Marangon, F., Troiano, S., Tempesta, T., & Vecchiato, D. (2013). Consumer behaviour in rural tourism. Conjoint Analysis of Choice Attributes in the Italian-Slovenian Cross-Boundary Area, 3, 77-90.

Mazzocchi, C., & Sali, G. (2019). Assessing the value of pastoral farming in the alps using choice experiments: Evidence for public policies and management. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 62(4), 552-567. doi:10.1080/09640568.2018.1430557

Mazzocchi, C., & Sali, G. (2016). Sustainability and competitiveness of agriculture in mountain areas: A willingness to pay (WTP) approach. Sustainability (Switzerland), 8(4) doi:10.3390/su8040343

Mazzocchi, C., Sali, G., & Corsi, S. (2014). Agricultural fragility in periurban area: A tool for territorial governance. [Fragilità del contesto agricolo periurbano: Uno strumento di analisi per il governo del territorio] Scienze Regionali, 13(3), 51-72.

MillánVázquez de la Torre, G., Arjona Fuentes, J. M., & Amador Hidalgo, L. (2013). Rural tourism in natural parks in andalusia: An analysis of the demand of the tourist consumer. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(1), 52-59.

Molera, L., & Albaladejo, I. P. (2007). Profiling segments of tourists in rural areas of south-eastern spain. Tourism Management, 28(3), 757-767. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2006.05.006

Molina, J. R., Silva, F. R. Y., & Herrera, M. T. (2016). Integrating economic landscape valuation into mediterranean territorial planning. Environmental Science and Policy, 56, 120-128. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2015.11.010

Rathnayake, R. M. W. (2016). Pricing the enjoyment of 'elephant watching' at the minneriya national park in sri lanka: An analysis using CVM. Tourism Management Perspectives, 18, 26-33. doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2016.01.002

Soliva, R., Rønningen, K., Bella, I., Bezak, P., Cooper, T., Flø, B. E., . . . Potter, C. (2008). Envisioning upland futures: Stakeholder responses to scenarios for europe's mountain landscapes. Journal of Rural Studies, 24(1), 56-71. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.04.001

Streifeneder, T., Tappeiner, U., Ruffini, F. V., Tappeiner, G., & Hoffmann, C. (2007). Selected aspects of the agricultural structure change within the alps-a comparison of harmonised agri-structural indicators on a municipal level within the alpine convention area. Revue De Géographie Alpine, 95(3), 41-52.

Strobl, A., Teichmann, K., & Peters, M. (2015). Do mountain tourists demand ecotourism? examining mode rating influences in an alpine tourism context. Tourism, 63(3), 383-398.

Thiene, M., & Scarpa, R. (2008). Hiking in the alps: Exploring substitution patterns of hiking destinations. Tourism Economics, 14(2), 263-282. doi:10.5367/000000008784460445

Torquati, B., Tempesta, T., Vecchiato, D., Venanzi, S., & Paffarini, C. (2017). The value of traditional rural landscape and nature protected areas in tourism demand: A study on agritourists' preferences. Landscape Online, 53, 1-18. doi:10.3097/LO.201753

van der Ploeg, J. D., van Broekhuizen, R., Brunori, G., Sonnino, R., Knickel, K., Tisenkopfs, T., & Oostindie, H. (2008). Towards a framework for understanding regional rural development. Unfolding Webs: The Dynamics of Regional Rural Development, , 1-28.

Wedel, M., & Kamakura, W. A. (1998). Market segmentation: Conceptual and methodological foundations. Market Segmentation: Conceptual and Methodological Foundations,





How to Cite

Mazzocchi, C., Sali, G., & Ruggeri, G. (2019). Tourists’ Preferences for Alpine Pastures Maintenance. Landscape Online, 68.



Research Article