Combining Methods to Estimate Ecosystem Integrity and Ecosystem Service Potentials and Flows for Crop Production in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany


  • Jakub Zelený Charles University, Faculty of Humanities, Prague, Czech Republic; The Czech Academy of Sciences, Global Change Research Institute, Brno, Czech Republic
  • Sabine Bicking Kiel University, Institute for Natural Resource Conservation, Kiel, Germany
  • Kinh Bac Dang Kiel University, Institute for Natural Resource Conservation, Kiel, Germany; Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Felix Müller Kiel University, Institute for Natural Resource Conservation, Kiel, Germany



ecological indicators, Bayesian Belief Network, remote sensing, regional statistics, correlation analysis


Human well-being is highly dependent on nature, especially with respect to food provision. This study has been developed in the ecosystem service framework and focuses on the evaluation of ecological integrity as a base for the capacity of Schleswig-Holstein to provide ecosystem services. The ecosystem service potential is assessed based upon a Bayesian belief network and the study area’s soil fertility. The respective service flow is estimated from official regional statistics, and is represented by the total harvested biomass for food, fodder and energy. The spatial distribution of six different ecological integrity variables and the crop production potentials and flows are compared and interpreted with respect to the characteristics of the main landscape regions within the study area. The results indicate a trade-off between the actual crop production and the underlying ecological integrity and service potentials. This trade-off is strongest in case of croplands, while it gradually diminishes in grasslands and forests. Based on the results, conclusions about the relation between ecosystem services and ecological integrity are drawn. The findings of the study can be used to support the development of sustainable land management strategies, which aim to harmonize agricultural production and environmental conditions.


Alexander, P., Prestele, R., Verburg, P.H., Arneth, A., Baranzelli, C., Batista e Silva, F., Brown, C., Butler, A., Calvin, K., Dendoncker, N., Doelman, J.C., Dunford, R., Engström, K., Eitelberg, D., Fujimori, S., Harrison, P.A., Hasegawa, T., Havlik, P., Holzhauer, S., Humpenöder, F., Jacobs-Crisioni, C., Jain, A.K., Krisztin, T., Kyle, P., Lavalle, C., Lenton, T., Liu, J., Meiyappan, P., Popp, A., Powell, T., Sands, R.D., Schaldach, R., Stehfest, E., Steinbuks, J., Tabeau, A., Meijl, H., Wise, M.A. & Rounsevell, M.D. 2017. Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections. Global change biology, 23(2), 767- 781. DOI:10.1111/gcb.13447

Andreasen, J.K., O’Neill, R.V., Noss, R. & Slosser, N.C. 2001. Considerations for the development of a terrestrial index of ecological integrity. Ecol. Indic. 1, 21–35. DOI:10.1016/S1470-160X(01)00007-3

Appel, F., Ostermeyer-Withaupt, A. & Balmann, A. 2016. Effects of the German Renewable Energy Act on structural change in agriculture – The case of biogas. Utilities Policy, 41, 172-182. DOI:10.1016/j.jup.2016.02.013

Ash, N., Blanco, H., Brown, C., Garcia, K., Henrichs, T., Lucas, N., Ruadsepp-Heane, C., Simpson, R.D., Scholes, R., Tomich, T., Vira, B. & Zurek, M. (eds.) 2010. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being. A Manual for Assessment Practitioners. Island Press.

Bähr, J. & Kortum, G. 1987. Schleswig-Holstein. Sammlung Geographischer Führer 15. Berlin, Stuttgart: Gebrüder Borntraeger.

Bakker, W.H., Schmidt, K.S., 2002. Hyperspectral edge filtering for measuring homogeneity of surface cover types. ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 56, 246–256. DOI:10.1016/S0924-2716(02)00060-6

Bayes, T., 1763. An Essay towards Solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 53, 370–418. DOI:10.1098/rstl.1763.0053

Beichler, S.A., Bastian, O., Haase, D., Heiland, S., Kabisch, N., Müller, F. 2017 Does the Ecosystem Service Concept Reach its Limits in Urban Environments? Landscape Online. DOI:10.3097/LO.201751

Bicking, S., Burkhard, B., Kruse, M. & Müller, F. 2018. Mapping of nutrient regulating ecosystem service supply and demand on different scales in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. One Ecosystem. 2018;3:e22509. DOI:10.3897/oneeco.3.e22509

Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie (BKG) 2012. CORINE Land Cover 10 ha. (Date: 10.04.2018).

Bundesnetzagentur 2019. EEG-Registerdaten und –Fördersätze. (Date: 10.03.2019).

Brander, L.M. & Crossman, N.D. 2017. Economic quantification. In: Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374.Brown, E.D. & Williams, B.K. 2016. Ecological integrity assessment as a metric of biodiversity: are we measuring what we say we are? Biodivers. Conserv. 25, 1011–1035. DOI:10.1007/s10531-016-1111-0

Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (eds.) 2017a. Mapping ecosystem services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/oneeco.3.e22509

Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. 2017b. Introduction. In: Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/oneeco.3.e22509

Burkhard, B. 2017. Integrative approaches. In: Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/oneeco.3.e22509

Burkhard, B., Kandziora, M., Hou, Y. & Müller, F. 2014. Ecosystem Service Potentials, Flows and Demands – Concepts for Spatial Localisation, Indication and Quantification. Landsc. Online 32, 1–32. DOI:10.3097/LO.201434

Burkhard, B., Kroll, F., Müller, F. & Windhorst, W. 2009. Landscapes’ Capacities to Provide Ecosystem Services – a Concept for Land-Cover Based Assessments. Landscape Online 15: 1-22. DOI:10.3097/LO.200915

Burkhard, B., Kroll, F., Nedkov, S. & Müller, F. 2012. Mapping supply, demand and budgets of ecosystem services. - Ecological Indicators 21: 17- 29. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.06.019

Burkhard, B., Petrosillo, I. & Costanza, R. 2010. Ecosystem Services – Bridging Ecology, Economy and Social Sciences. Ecological Complexity 7/3: 257-259. DOI:10.1016/j.ecocom.2010.07.001

Burkhard, B., Crossman, N., Nedkov, S., Petz, K. & Alkemade, R. 2013. Mapping and Modelling Ecosystem Services for Science, Policy and Practice. Ecosystem Services 4: 1-3. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoser.2013.04.005

Cambridge Dictionary 2019. Integrity. Cambridge University Press. (Date: 10.03.2019).

Castaldi, F., Palombo, A., Santini, F., Pascucci, S., Pignatti, S. & Casa, R. 2016. Evaluation of the potential of the current and forthcoming multispectral and hyperspectral imagers to estimate soil texture and organic carbon. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 179, 54–65. DOI:10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.025

Costanza, R., 2012. Ecosystem health and ecological engineering. Ecological Engineering, 45, 24–29. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.03.023

Chrysafis, I., Mallinis, G., Siachalou, S. & Patias, P. 2017. Assessing the relationships between growing stock volume and Sentinel-2 imagery in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Remote Sensing Letters, 8(6), 508–517. DOI:10.1080/2150704X.2017.1295479

ClimateDataCenter2018.ZeitreihenfürGebietsmittel für Bundesländer und Kombinationen von Bundesländer. (Date: 14.02.2018).

Daily, G.C., Matson, P.A., 2008. From theory to implementation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 9455– 9456. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0804960105

Dang, K.B., Windhorst, W., Burkhard, B. & Müller, F. 2018. A Bayesian Belief Network – Based approach to link ecosystem functions with rice provisioning ecosystem services. Ecol. Indic. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.04.055

De Groot, R., Fisher, B., Christie, M., Aronson, J., Braat, L., Haines-Young, R., Gowdy, J., Maltby, E., Neuville, A., Polasky, S., Portela, R. & Ring, I. 2010. Chapter 1, Integrating the ecological and economic dimensions in biodiversity and ecosystem service valuation. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB): Ecological and Economic Foundations, (January). DOI:10.4324/9781849775489

De Groot, R., Braat, L. & Costanza, R. 2017. A short history of the ecosystem services concept. In: Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/ab.e12837

De Groot, R., Wilson, M.A. & Boumans, R.M.J. 2002. A Typology for the Classification Description and Valuation of Ecosystem Functions , Goods and Services. Ecological Economics, 41(3), pp. 393– 408. DOI:10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00089-7

Ellison, A.M. 2004. Bayesian inference in ecology. Ecol. Lett. 7, 509–520. DOI:10.1111/j.1461- 0248.2004.00603.x

ESA. European Space Agency. 2019. (Date: 12.9.2019)

Erhard, M., Banko, G., Abdul Malak, D. & Santos Martin, F. 2017. Mapping ecosystem types and conditions. In: Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/ab.e12837

Etter, a., McAlpine, C. a., Seabrook, L., Wilson, K.A. 2011. Incorporating temporality and biophysical vulnerability to quantify the human spatial footprint on ecosystems. Biol. Conserv. 144, 1585–1594. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.02.004

European Commission 2016. Mapping and assessing the condition of Europe’s ecosystems: Progress and challenges. Technical Report - 2016 – 095, Copenhagen.

FAO, 2005. The importance of soil organic matter, available at: (Date: 18.12. 2019)

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. 2017. Bericht der Bundesregierung zum Stickstoffeintrag in die Biosphäre. Drucksache 18/12690, Berlin.

Foody, G.M., & Atkinson, P.M. (eds.) 2002. Uncertainty in remote sensing and GIS. John Wiley & Sons. DOI:10.1002/0470035269

Fraser, R., Kerr, J. & Sawada, M. 2005. Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Monitor and Assess Ecosystem Integrity and Climate Change in Canada’s National Parks. National Parks, 7.

Fraser, R.H., Olthof, I. & Pouliot, D. 2009. Monitoring land cover change and ecological integrity in Canada’s national parks. Remote Sensing of Environment, 113(7), 1397–1409. DOI:10.1016/j.rse.2008.06.019

Fraser, R.H., Olthof, I., Carrière, M., Deschamps, A. & Pouliot, D. 2011. Detecting long-term changes to vegetation in northern Canada using the Landsat satellite image archive. Environmental Research Letters, 6(4), 45502. DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045502

German Federal Statistical Office (Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder Deutschland) 2018. Gebietsfläche in qkm - Stichtag 31.12.;jsessionid=394E27C73C8CD432379DD28A35C296FE.reg1?operation=abruftabelleBearbeiten&levelindex=2&levelid=1540288100110&auswahloperation=abruftabelleAuspraegungAuswaehlen&auswahlverzeichnis=ordnungsstruktu (Date: 22.07.2018).

Grêt-Regamey, A., Brunner, S.H., Altwegg, J. & Bebi, P. 2013. Facing uncertainty in ecosystem services-based resource management. Journal of environmental management, 127, S145-S154. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.07.028

Guerra, C., Alkemade, R., & Maes, J. 2017. When to map? In: Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/ab.e12837

Haines-Young, R. & Potschin, M. 2017. Categorisation systems: The classificationchallenge. In: Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/ab.e12837

Haines-Young, R. & Potschin-Young, M. 2010a. Proposal for a Common International Classification of Ecosystem Goods and Services (CICES) for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting. Report to the European Environment Agency.

Haines-Young, R. & Potschin, M. 2010b. The links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. In: Raffaelli, D.G & Frid, C.L.J. (eds.): Ecosystem Ecology: A New Synthesis. Cambridge University Press, British Ecological Society, pp. 110-139. DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511750458.007

Hill, M.O., Roy, D.B. & Thompson, K. 2002.Hemeroby, urbanity and ruderality: bioindicators of disturbance and human impact. Journal of Applied Ecology 39, 708–720. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00746.x

Hoffmann,D.2004.Holocenelandscapedevelopment in the marshes of the West Coast of Schleswig- Holstein, Germany. Quaternary International. DOI:10.1016/S1040-6182(03)00063-6.

Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 4:1-23 DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.12.002

Hou, Y., Burkhard, B. & Müller, F. 2013. Uncertainties in landscape analysis and ecosystem service assessment. - Journal of Environmental Management: 127: S117-S131. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.12.002

Hou, Y., Zhou, S., Burkhard, B. & Müller, F. 2014. Socioeconomic influences on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being: A quantitative application of the DPSIR model in Jiangsu, China. Science of the Total Environment 490: 1012-1028. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.071

Isbell, F., Reich, P. B., Tilman, D., Hobbie, S. E., Polasky, S., & Binder, S. 2013. Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(29), 11911–11916. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1310880110

Jacobs, S., Burkhard, B., Van Daele, T., Staes, J. & Schneiders, A. 2015. The Matrix Reloaded: A review of expert knowledge use for mapping ecosystem services. Ecological Modelling 295: 21–30. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.08.024

Jacobs, S., Verheyden, W. & Dendoncker, N. 2017. Why to map? In: Burkhard, B. and Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/ab.e12837

Jeevalakshmi, D., Narayana Reddy, S., & Manikiam, B. 2017. Land surface temperature retrieval from LANDSAT data using emissivity estimation. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 12(20), 9679–9687.

Jørgensen, S.E., Fath, B., Bastianoni, S., Marquez, J., Müller, F., Nielsen, S.N., Patten, B., Tiezzi, E. & Ulanowicz, R. (eds.) 2007. A New Ecology - The Systems Perspective. Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam. p. 288.

Kandziora, M., Burkhard, B. & Müller, F. 2013. Interactions of ecosystem properties, ecosystem integrity and ecosystem service indicators — a theoretical matrix exercise. Ecological Indicators, 28: 54-78. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.09.006

Karr, J. 1996. Ecological Integrity and Ecological Health Are Not the Same. National Academy of Engineering. 1996. Engineering Within Ecological Constraints. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. DOI:10.17226/4919

Karr, J.R. & Dudley, D.R. 1981. Ecological perspective on water quality goals. Environ. Manage. 5, 55– 68. DOI:10.1007/BF01866609

Kay, J.J. & Schneider, E.D. 1992. Thermodynamics and Measures of Ecological Integrity. pp. 159– 160. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4615-4659-7_12

Kragt, M.E. 2009. A beginners guide to Bayesian network modelling for integrated catchment. Landscape Logic. 22.

Kruschke, J.K. 2014. Doing Bayesian data analysis: A tutorial with R, JAGS, and Stan, second edition, Doing Bayesian Data Analysis: A Tutorial with R, JAGS, and Stan, Second Edition. Elsevier Inc. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-405888-0.09999-2

Laurila-Pant, M., Lehikoinen, A., Uusitalo, L. & Venesjärvi, R. 2015. How to value biodiversity in environmental management? Ecological Indicators. Elsevier Ltd, 55, pp. 1–11. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.02.034

Liquete, C., Cid, N., Grizzetti, B., Lanzanova, D. & Reynaud, A. 2016. Perspectives on the link between ecosystem services and biodiversity: The assessment of the nursery function. Ecological Indicators. Elsevier Ltd, 63, pp. 249–257. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.11.058

LLUR 2011. Bodenbewertung in Schleswig- Holstein. https://www.schleswig- holste /DE/Fachinhalte /B/bode n/ Downloads/ErlaeuterungenNutzer.pdf?__ blob=publicationFile&v=3 (Date: 10.08.2018).

LLUR 2012. Die Böden Schleswig-Holsteins - Entstehung, Verbreitung, Nutzung, Eigenschaften und Gefährdung. Schriftenreihe LLUR SH – Geologie und Boden. Schriftenreihe LLUR SH – Geologie und Boden:, 11.

LLUR 2017. Naturräume in Schleswig-Holstein. (Date: 10.12.2018).

Louis Bolk Instituut 2009. NDICEA nitrogen planner software. (Date: 10.10.2018).

NASA. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2019. (Date: 12.09.2019)

Maes, J., Teller, A., Erhard, M., Murphy, P., Paracchini, M., Barredo, J., Teller, A., Erhard, M. Murphy, P., Paracchini, M. Barredo, J., Grizzeti, B., Cardoso, A., Somma, F. Petersen, J.-E., Meiner, A., Gelabert, E., Zal, N., Kristensen, P., Bastrup-Birk, A. Biala, K. Romao, C., Piroddi, Ch., Egoh, B., Fiorina, Ch., Santos, F., Narusevicius, V., Verboven, J., Pereira, H., Bengtsson, J., Kremena, G., Marta-Pedroso, C., Snäll, T., Estreguil, Ch., San Miguel, J., Braat, L., Grêt-Regamey, A., Perez-Soba, M., Degeorges, P., Beaufarron, G., Lillebo, A., Abdul Malak, D., Liquete, C., Condé, S., Moen, J., Östergard, H., Czucz, B., Drakou, E., Zulian, G., Lavalle, C. (2014). Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services. Indicators for ecosystem assessment under Action 5 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 : 2nd report - final, February 2014. In Technical Report (Vol. 2014–080). DOI:10.2779/75203

Maes, J., Teller, A., Erhard, M., Grizzetti, B., Barredo, J.I., Paracchini, M.L., Condé, S., Somma, F., Orgiazzi, A., Jones, A., Zulian A., Vallecilo, S., Petersen, J.E., Marquardt, D., Kovacevic, V., Abdul Malak, D., Marin, A.I., Czúcz, B., Mauri, A., Loffler, P., Bastrup-Birk, A., Biala, K., Christiansen, T. & Werner, B. 2018. Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services: An analytical framework for mapping and assessment of ecosystem condition in EU. DOI:10.2779/41384

Maes, J., Egoh, B., Willemen, L., Liquete, C., Vihervaara, P., Schägner, J.P., Grizzetti, B., Drakou, E.G., La Notte, A., Zulian, G., Bouraoui, F., Paracchini, M.L., Braat, L. & Bidoglio, G. 2012. Mapping ecosystem services for policy support and decision making in the European Union. Ecosystem Services, 1(1), 31–39. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.06.004

Maes, W.H., Pashuysen, T., Trabucco, A., Veroustraete, F. & Muys, B. 2011. Does energy dissipation increase with ecosystem succession? Testing the ecosystem exergy theory combining theoretical simulations and thermal remote sensing observations. Ecol. Modell. 222, 3917– 3941. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.08.028

Maturana, H. & Varela, F.J. 1998. The tree of knowledge. (revised ed.). Boston, MA: Shambala Press.

Menzel, S., Kappel, C.V., Broitman, B.R., Micheli, F. & Rosenberg, A.A. 2013. Linking human activity and ecosystem condition to inform marine ecosystem based management. Aquatic Conservation of Marine Freshwater Ecosystems, 23: 506-514. DOI:10.1002/aqc.2365

Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) 2005. Island Press.

Millar, C.I., Stephenson, N.L., Stephens, S.L., 2007. Climate Change and Forests of the Future: Managing in the Face of Uncertainty. Ecol. Appl. 17, 2145–2151. DOI:10.1890/06-1715.1

Müller, F., 1997. State-of-the-art in ecosystem theory. Ecol. Modell. 100, 135–161. DOI:10.1016/S0304-3800(97)00156-7

Müller, F. & Burkhard, B. 2012. The indicator side of ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services, 1, pp. 26–30. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.06.001.

Müller, F. & Kroll, F. 2011. Integrating ecosystem theories - Gradients and orientors as outcomes of self-organized processes. International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics, 6(4), pp. 318–341. DOI:10.2495/DNE-V6-N4-318-341.

Müller, F., Burkhard, B., Kroll, F., 2010. Landform - Structure, Evolution, Process Control 115, 221–242. DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-75761-0

Müller, F., Hoffmann-Kroll, R., Wiggering, H., 2000. Indicating ecosystem integrity - Theoretical concepts and environmental requirements. Ecol. Modell. 130, 13–23. DOI:10.1016/S0304-3800(00)00210-6

Müller, F. 2005. Indicating ecosystem and landscape organisation. Ecol. Indic. 5, 280–294. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.03.017

Müller, F., Fohrer, N. & Chicharo, L. 2015. The Basic Ideas of the Ecosystem Service Concept. In: Chicharo, L., F. Müller & N. Fohrer, 2015: Ecosystem Services and River Basin Ecohydrology. Springer Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York: 7-33. DOI:10.1007/978-94-017-9846-4_2

Nedkov, S. & Burkhard, B. 2012. Flood regulating ecosystem services – mapping supply and demand in the Etropole Municipality. Bulgaria. Ecological Indicators 21, 67–79. DOI:10.1016/j. ecolind.2011.06.022

Nielsen, S.N. & Jorgensen, S.E. 2013. Goal functions, orientors and indicators (GoFOrIt’s) in ecology. Application and functional aspects-Strengths and weaknesses. Ecol. Indic. 28, 31–47. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.12.015

Niemi, G.J. & Mcdonald, M.E. 2004. Application of ecological indicators*. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 35, 89–111. DOI:10.1146/annurev. ecolsys.35.112202.130132

Paetzold, A., Warren, P.H. & Maltby, L.L. 2010. A framework for assessing ecological quality based on ecosystem services. Ecological Complexity, 7(3), 273–281. DOI:10.1016/j.ecocom.2009.11.003

Parrott, L. 2010. Measuring ecological complexity. Ecological Indicators 10, 1069–1076. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.03.014

Pascual, M., Miñana, E.P. & Giacomello, E. 2016. Integrating knowledge on biodiversity and ecosystem services: Mind-mapping and Bayesian Network modelling. Ecosyst. Serv. 17, 112–122. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.12.004

Pelosi, C., Pey, B., Hedde, M., Caro, G., Capowiez, Y., Guernion, M., Peigné, J., Piron, D., Bertrand, M., Cluzeau, D. 2014. Reducing tillage in cultivated fields increases earthworm functional diversity. Applied Soil Ecology, 83, 79–87. DOI:10.1016/j.apsoil.2013.10.005

Pimm, S. L. 1984. The complexity and stability of ecosystems. Nature 307:321-326. DOI:10.1038/307321a0

Pollino, C.A., Woodberry, O., Nicholson, A., Korb, K. & Hart, B.T. 2007. Parameterisation and evaluation of a Bayesian network for use in an ecological risk assessment. Environmental Modelling & Software, 22(8), 1140-1152. DOI:10.1016/j.envsoft.2006.03.006

Poppenborg, P. & Koellner, T. 2014. A Bayesian network approach to model farmers’ crop choice using socio-psychological measurements of expected benefits of ecosystem services. Environ. Model. Softw. 57, 227–234. DOI:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.03.006

QGIS zonal statistics plugin, 2019. https://docs. plugins_zonal_statistics.html (Date: 10.9.2019)

Ramsfield, T.D., Bentz, B.J., Faccoli, M., Jactel, H., Brockerhoff, E.G., 2016. Forest health in achanging world: Effects of globalization and climate change on forest insect and pathogen impacts. Forestry 89, 245–252. DOI:10.1093/forestry/cpw018

Rapport, D.J., Costanza, R., McMichael, A.J., 1998. Assessing ecosystem health. Trends Ecol. Evol. 13, 397–402. DOI:10.1016/S0169-5347(98)01449-9

Regan, H.M., Colyvan, M. & Burgman, M.A. 2002. A taxonomy and treatment of uncertainty for ecology and conservation biology. Ecological applications, 12(2), 618-628. DOI:10.1890/1051- 0761(2002)012[0618:ATATOU]2.0.CO;2

Revenga, C. 2005. Developing indicators of ecosystem condition using geographic information systems and remote sensing. Reg. Environ. Change, 5:205- 214. DOI:10.1007/s10113-004-0085-8

Reza, M.I.H. & Abdullah, S.A. 2011. Regional Index of Ecological Integrity: A need for sustainable management of natural resources. Ecological Indicators 11, 220–229. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.08.010

Roche, P.K. & Campagne, C.S. 2018. From ecosystem integrity to ecosystem condition: a continuity of concepts supporting different aspects of ecosystem sustainability. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 29:63–68. DOI:10.1016/j.cosust.2017.12.009

Rousseau, L., Fonte, S. J., Téllez, O., Van Der Hoek, R., & Lavelle, P. 2013. Soil macrofauna as indicators of soil quality and land use impacts in smallholder agroecosystems of western Nicaragua. Ecological Indicators, 27, 71–82. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.11.020

Roy, D.P., Wulder, M.A., Loveland, T.R., Woodcock, C.E., Allen, R.G., Anderson, M.C., Helder, D., Irons, J.D., Johnson, D.M., Kennedy, R., Scambos, T.A., Schaaf, C.B., Schott, C.B., Scheng, Y., Vermonte, E.F., Belward, A.S., Bindschadler, R., Cohen, W.B., Gao, F., Hipple, J.D., Hostert, P., Huntington, J., Justice, C.O., Kilic, A., Kovalskyy, V., Lee, Z.P., Lymburner, L., Masek, J.G., McCorkel, J., Shuai, Y., Trezza, R., Vogelmann, J., Wynne, R.H. & Zhu, Z. 2014. Landsat-8: Science and product vision for terrestrial global change research. Remote Sensing of Environment, 145, 154–172. DOI:10.1016/j.rse.2014.02.001

Schneider, E.D. & Kay, J.J. 1994. Life as a manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics. Math. Comput. Model. 19, 25–48. DOI:10.1016/0895-7177(94)90188-0

Schneiders, A. & Müller, F. 2017. A natural base for ecosystem services. In: Burkhard, B. and Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/ab.e12837

Schott, C. 1956. Die Naturlandschaften Schleswig- Holsteins. Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag.

Schröter, M., van der Zanden, E.H., van Oudenhoven, A.P.E., Remme, R.P., Serna-Chavez, H.M., de Groot, R.S. & Opdam, P. 2014. Ecosystem Services as a Contested Concept: A Synthesis of Critique and Counter-Arguments. Conservation Letters, 7(6), pp. 514–523. DOI:10.1111/conl.12091

Schröter, M., Albert, C., Marques, A., Tobon, W., Lavorel, S., Maes, J., Brown, C., Klotz, S. & Bonn, A. 2016. National ecosystem assessments in Europe: a review. Bioscience 66: biw101. DOI:10.1093/biosci/biw101

Schulp, C.J.E., Burkhard, B., Maes, J., van Vliet, J. & Verburg, P.H. 2014. Uncertainties in Ecosystem Service Maps: A Comparison on the European Scale. – PloS ONE 9(10): e109643. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109643

Seppelt, R., Dormann, C.F., Eppink, F.V., Lautenbach, S. & Schmidt, S. 2011. A quantitative review of ecosystem service studies: approaches, shortcomings and the road ahead. Journal of applied Ecology, 48(3), 630-636. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01952.x

Shao, G. & Wu, J. 2008. On the accuracy of landscape pattern analysis using remote sensing data. Landscape Ecology, 23(5), 505-511. DOI:10.1007/s10980-008-9215-x

Slocombe, D.S. 1992. Environmental monitoring for protected areas: Review and prospect. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 21, 49–78. DOI:10.1007/BF00400057

Sohel, M.S.I., Ahmed Mukul, S. & Burkhard, B. 2015. Landscape’s capacities to supply ecosystem services in Bangladesh: A mapping assessment for Lawachara National Park. Ecosystem Services. Elsevier, 12, pp. 128–135. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.11.015

Statistical Agency North (dt: Statistikamt Nord) 2010. Agricultural census in Schleswig-Holstein 2010. Personal Communication.

Stewig, R. 1982. Landeskunde von Schleswig- Holstein. Geocolleg 5. Berlin, Stuttgart: Gebrüder Borntraeger.

Stoll, S., Frenzel, M., Burkhard, B., Adamescu, M., Augustaitis, A., Baeßler, C., Bonet García, F.J., Cazacu, C., Cosor, G.L., Díaz-Delgado, R., Carranza, M.L., Grandin, U., Haase, P., Hämäläinen, H., Loke, R., Müller, J., Stanisci, A., Staszewski, T. & Müller, F. 2015. Assessment of spatial ecosystem integrity and service gradients across Europe using the LTER Europe network. - Ecological Modelling 295: 75–87. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.06.019

Stritih, A., Bebi, P. & Grêt-Regamey, A. 2019. Quantifying uncertainties in earth observation- based ecosystem service assessments. Environmental modelling & software, 111, 300-310. DOI:10.1016/j.envsoft.2018.09.005

Syrbe, R.U. & Grunewald, K. 2017. Ecosystem service supply and demand – the challenge to balance spatial mismatches. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 13. DOI:10.1080/21513732.2017.1407362

Syrbe, R.U., Schröter, M., Grunewald, K., Walz, U. & Burkhard, B. 2017. What to map? In: Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/ab.e12837

Taube, F., Henning, C., Albrecht, E., Reinsch, T., Kluß, C. 2015. Nährstoffbericht des Landes Schleswig-Holstein. Im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Energiewende, Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume. DOI:10.13140/RG.2.1.2965.0005

Teller, A. 2017. Foreword. In: Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (eds.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 374. DOI:10.3897/ab.e12837

Torralba, M., Fagerholm, N., Burgess, P. J., Moreno, G., & Plieninger, T. (2016). Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services? A meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 230, 150–161. DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2016.06.002

Tully, K., & Ryals, R. 2017. Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems: Balancing food and environmental objectives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 41(7), 761–798. DOI:10.1080/21683565.2017.1336149

USGS. 2019. United States Geological Survey. (Date: 21.09.2019)

Uuemaa, E., Antrop, M., Roosaare, J.& Marja, R. 2009. Landscape Metrics and Indices: An Overview of Their Use in Landscape Research Living Reviews in Landscape Research. Living Reviews in Landscape Research, 3, 1–28. DOI:10.12942/lrlr-2009-1

Uusitalo, L. 2007. Advantages and challenges of Bayesian networks in environmental modelling. Ecol. Modell. 203, 312–318. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.11.033

van der Werff, H. & van der Meer, F. 2016. Sentinel- 2A MSI and Landsat 8 OLI provide data continuity for geological remote sensing. Remote Sensing, 8(11). DOI:10.3390/rs8110883

Vargas, L., Remme, R.P., Vargas, L., Hein, L. & Remme, R.P. 2017. Accounting for ecosystem assets using remote sensing in the Colombian Orinoco River Basin lowlands the Colombian Orinoco River Basin lowlands 11. DOI:10.1117/1.JRS.11.026008

Vihervaara, P., Kumpula, T., Tanskanen, A.& Burkhard, B. 2010. Ecosystem services-A tool for sustainable management of human-environment systems. Case study Finnish Forest Lapland. Ecol. Complex. 7, 410–420. DOI:10.1016/j.ecocom.2009.12.002

Villamagna, A.M., Angermeier, P.L. & Bennett, E.M. 2013. Capacity, pressure, demand, and flow: A conceptual framework for analyzing ecosystem service provision and delivery. Ecological Complexity. Elsevier B.V., 15, pp. 114–121. DOI:10.1016/j.ecocom.2013.07.004

Walz, U. 2014. Indicators to monitor the structural diversity of landscapes. Ecological Modelling, 295, 88–106. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.07.011

Westra, L., Miller, P., Karr, J.R., Rees W.E. & Ulanowicz, R.E. 2000. Ecological integrity and the aims of the Global Integrity Project. In: Pimentel, D., Westra, L. & Reed, F.N. (eds.): Integrating Environment, Conservation, and Health, 19-44. Washington D.C: Island Press.

Woodcock, C.E. 2002. Uncertainty in remote sensing. In: Foody, G.M. & Atkinson, P.M. (eds.): Uncertainty in remote sensing and GIS. DOI:10.1002/0470035269.ch2

Xiao, R. bo, Ouyang, Z. yun, Zheng, H., LI, W. Feng, Schienke, E. W., & Wang, X. ke. (2007). Spatial pattern of impervious surfaces and their impacts on land surface temperature in Beijing, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19(2), 250– 256. DOI:10.1016/S1001-0742(07)60041-2

Xu, C., Li, Y., Hu, J., Yang, X., Sheng, S. & Liu, M. 2012. Evaluating the difference between the normalized difference vegetation index and net primary productivity as the indicators of vegetation vigor assessment at landscape scale. Environmental Monitoring and Assessessment 184, 1275–1286. DOI:10.1007/s10661-011-2039-1

Zhao, M., Heinsch, F.A., Nemani, R.R. & Running, S.W. 2005. Improvements of the MODIS terrestrial gross and net primary production global data set. Remote Sensing of Environment, 95(2), 164–176. DOI:10.1016/j.rse.2004.12.011




11.04.2020 — Updated on 11.04.2020

How to Cite

Zelený, J., Bicking, S., Dang, K. B., & Müller, F. (2020). Combining Methods to Estimate Ecosystem Integrity and Ecosystem Service Potentials and Flows for Crop Production in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Landscape Online, 79.